Typhoid

Typhoid

Potentially fatal bacteria causing persistent high fever, abdominal discomfort, malaise, and headache. Travellers in areas without good sanitation or clean water should watch out for contaminated food and water.

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Key Facts around Typhoid

Estimates of case fatality rates in typhoid fever range from 1% to 4% in patients who receive adequate therapy.1


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  • How do people catch this disease?

    By eating food or drinking water contaminated by faeces from someone who has been infected with typhoid.1

  • Which countries are affected?

    The disease is common in parts of the world where there is less access to clean water and sanitation is poor. This includes most countries in Central and South America, Africa and Asia (see map).3

  • What are the symptoms?

    Persistent high fever, abdominal discomfort, malaise, and headache.1,5

  • How serious is the disease?

    Antibiotics are an effective treatment for typhoid. If untreated and severe, complications of the disease can be fatal.1,5

  • Can I reduce the chances of catching the Typhiod?

    You can take the following precautions to help reduce your risk of infection:

    • Visit a travel health clinic to assess the risks of the planned trip and get advice about available vaccinations and further precautions.
      Click here to find your nearest travel health clinic and make an appointment: https://www.reisemedizincheck.at/en/find-a-travel-health-service
    • Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat, seafood, fish, fruit or vegetables.3 Choose freshly-cooked food that’s served piping hot or fruit that you peel yourself.3
    • Avoid ice and stick to fizzy drinks in sealed bottles or cans, or freshly boiled hot drinks.3
    • Wash your hands frequently, especially before eating and after using the toilet.3
References
  1. World Health Organization. Weekly Epidemiological Record. Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper-March 2018. Available online: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272272/WER9313.pdf?ua=1
    (Last accessed September 2020)
  2. Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004;82:346–53. Available online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2622843/pdf/15298225.pdf (Last accessed September 2020)
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Yellow Book 2020. Chapter 2. Preparing International Travelers. Food & Water Precautions. Available online: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/preparing-international-travelers/food-and-water-precautions (Last accessed September 2020)
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Yellow Book 2020. Chapter 4. Travel-Related Infectious Diseases. Typhoid & Paratyphoid Fever. Available online: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/travel-related-infectious-diseases/typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever (Last accessed September 2020)

2006-AT-WEB-035
21-Jan-2021
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